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Electrical Stimulation - Athletic Training (non-live) - 3 Hour

INSTRUCTIONS
You will need to answer 7 questions correctly to pass the test.
(1) Which of the following electrical stimulation interventions would be appropriate?
(A) Pregnant female - ES to low back to reduce muscle spasms
(B) Male s/p 1 year spinal cord injury - ES to facilitate wrist extensors
(C) Male with recent history of melanoma on leg - ES to knee to reduce edema following ligament injury.
(D) Female with cardiac pacemaker - ES to shoulder following rotator cuff surgery
(2) Which of the following has a relatively low water content and is considered to be a poor conductor of electrical current?
(A) Tendon
(B) Muscle
(C) Nerve
(D) Cell membrane
(3) Which of the following is FALSE regarding electrical stimulation applied to nerves?
(A) Both afferent and efferent nerves are receptive to electrical stimulation.
(B) ES facilitates an exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the axon cell membrane.
(C) Large diameter neurons are typically easier to stimulate than smaller diameter neurons.
(D) Stimulation of superficial delta efferent neurons causes the patient to feel a tingling sensation.
(4) Which of the following is a physiological benefit of electrical stimulation that is applied to muscle?
(A) Enhanced satellite cell proliferation
(B) Increased activity of oxidative enzymes
(C) Increased cross-sectional muscle fiber mass
(D) All of the above
(5) Which of the following is TRUE regarding the use of electrical stimulation in rehabilitation?
(A) ES must be combined with other interventions to achieve functional goals.
(B) There is no evidence to support the use of ES.
(C) Insurance reimbursement should be the primary consideration when instituting an ES treatment.
(D) ES is beneficial for all individuals and diagnoses.
(6) Which ES frequency is most effective for strengthening/re-educating a weak muscle?
(A) 1-10 pps
(B) 15-35 pps
(C) 35-80 pps
(D) 80-150 pps
(7) Electrical stimulation used to relieve muscle spasms should have intensity set at what level?
(A) Sub-sensory
(B) Sensory
(C) Motor
(D) Noxious
(8) A duty cycle on/off ratio of _______ is recommended for strengthening a very weak muscle.
(A) 1:3
(B) 1:5
(C) 2:1
(D) 10:1
(9) _______ stimulates normal motor recruitment and produces a smoother muscle contraction and relaxation.
(A) Feathering
(B) Ramping
(C) Cascading
(D) Stepping
(10) Which statement is TRUE regarding the application and placement of electrodes?
(A) The red pads on a biphasic ES unit should be at least twice the size of the black pads.
(B) Placing electrodes closer together decreases the depth of penetration.
(C) To facilitate strengthening, electrodes should be placed on the musculotendinous junction.
(D) Self-adhesive electrodes should have new conductive gel applied each time the pad is re-used.
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