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Bone Health & Disease - OT - 5 Hour

You will need to answer 18 questions correctly to pass the test.
(1) Bone is a composite material, consisting of crystals of mineral bound to protein. (p. 4)
(A) True
(B) False
(2) Twenty-five percent of skeletal mass is made of a fine network of connecting plates and rods known as ________. (p. 4-5)
(A) cortical bone
(B) trabecular bone
(C) collagen
(D) hydroxyapatite
(3) Which of the following is NOT a calcium regulating hormone? (p. 7-10)
(A) Parathyroid hormone
(B) Calcitrol
(C) Calcitonin
(D) Cortisol
(4) Estrogen acts on both osteoclasts and osteoblasts to inhibit bone breakdown. (p. 9)
(A) True
(B) False
(5) Deficiency of thyroid hormone can cause too much bone breakdown and weaken the skeleton. (p. 9)
(A) True
(B) False
(6) What is the most common cause of secondary osteoporosis? (p. 11)
(A) Corticosteroids
(B) Opiates
(C) Barbituates
(D) Anticonvulsant Medications
(7) Nicotine in cigarettes can have a direct toxic effect on bone cells. (p. 13)
(A) True
(B) False
(8) In adults, vitamin C deficiency produces rickets. (p. 14)
(A) True
(B) False
(9) What percentage of trabecular bone is lost by women during the rapid phase of age related osteoporosis? (p. 16)
(A) 5-10%
(B) 10-20%
(C) 20-30%
(D) 30-50%
(10) Idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis almost always goes into spontaneous remission around the time of puberty with a resumption of normal bone growth at that time. (p. 17)
(A) True
(B) False
(11) Primary biliary cirrhosis is associated with particularly severe osteoporosis. (p. 18)
(A) True
(B) False
(12) Which of the following is TRUE concerning Paget’s Disease? (p. 22-23)
(A) It most commonly involves the small bones of the hands and wrists.
(B) It is the third most common bone disease.
(C) There is an increased formation of blood vessels in the skeletal cortex.
(D) There is a strong familial predisposition for the disease.
(13) The most severe form of Osteogenesis Imperfecta is: (p. 23)
(A) Type 1
(B) Type II
(C) Type III
(D) Type IV
(14) The most common benign bone tumors is osteosarcoma. (p. 24)
(A) True
(B) False
(15) Low body weight is a “red flag” signaling the potential for osteoporosis. (p. 25)
(A) True
(B) False
(16) Which risk assessment tool uses only two risk factors – age and weight? (p. 27)
(A) The National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) checklist
(B) The Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Instrument (ORAI)
(C) The Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation (SCORE)
(D) The Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool (OST)
(17) Bone mineral density is considered the “gold standard” test for those at risk of osteoporosis. (p. 28)
(A) True
(B) False
(18) What is the most widely accepted method of measuring bone mineral density? (p. 29-30)
(A) Dual x-ray absorptiometry
(B) Peripheral quantitative computed tomography
(C) Quantitative ultrasound
(D) Radiographic absorptiometry
(19) Hip BMD that is 2.5 standard deviations or more below the young adult mean in the presence of one or more fragility fractures is considered osteopenia. (p. 31)
(A) True
(B) False
(20) Approximately what percentage of osteoporotic spine fractures goes undiagnosed? (p. 33)
(A) 25%
(B) 33%
(C) 50%
(D) 67%
(21) 85 percent of patients still use an assistive device for walking 6 months after a hip fracture. (p. 34)
(A) True
(B) False
(22) Which of the following is FALSE regarding falls and fall prevention in the elderly? (p. 38-40)
(A) Cognitive impairment is a risk factor for falls.
(B) Anti-depressant drugs increase the risk of falls.
(C) Using bed rails in hospitals decreases the number of falls
(D) Wearing hip protectors reduces the risk of hip fracture for elderly individuals who live in nursing homes.
(23) Approximately what percentage of people die within 1 year after fracturing their hip? (p. 40-42)
(A) 10%
(B) 15%
(C) 20%
(D) 25%
(24) The foundation of a good physical activity regimen involves at least 30 minutes (adults) or 60 minutes (children) of moderate physical activity every day. (p. 44)
(A) True
(B) False
(25) High levels of sodium or caffeine intake can increase calcium excretion in the urine. (p. 50)
(A) True
(B) False
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